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Classification and Coding of Entity Features for Digital Twin Sichuan-Tibet Railway
Role of Geometric Algebra in High Dimensional Space Representation of Geographic Information
Characteristics of the Game Map
Knowledge Graph Construction Method on Natural Disaster Emergency
A Review on Geographically Weighted Regression
Battlefield Geographic Environment Spatiotemporal Process Model Based on Simulation Event
A Visual Representation Method of Landslide Disasters for Public Education
Layout Optimization of the Directional Emergency Evacuation Signs Based on Virtual Reality Eye-Tracking Experiment
Service-Oriented Decentralized Computing Method for Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Model
Hilbert Code Index Method for Spatiotemporal Data of Virtual Battlefield Environment
Deformation Modeling and Texture Generation of Crater Caused by Projectile Touchdown Explosion
Optimization Method of Disaster Scene Loading Under Mobile Augmented Reality Visualization
Research Progress on Simplification of Building Models in 3D Scenes
A Method for Road Network Selection Considering the Traffic Flow Semantic Information
Landmark Extraction via Composite Features of Voronoi Diagram
A Solution for Ground Subsidence Prediction of Time Series Based on Autoregression EIV Model with Inequality Constraints
Sounding Velocity Intergrated Error Correction Method of Multi-beam Data Based on Kalman Filtering
ElasticFusion for Indoor 3D Reconstruction with an Improved Matching Points Selection Strategy
Frozen-Barycentre Algorithm for Solving Distance Equations
Coastline Change Monitoring of Jiaozhou Bay from Multi-source SAR and Optical Remote Sensing Images Since 2000
Articles online first have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Characteristics of the Computer Game Map
Application of EM Algorithm in the Parameter Estimation of P-norm Mixture Mode
Articles just accepted have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Applications of the UAVs in the Antarctic Scientific Research: Progress and Prospect
LI Teng, ZHANG Baogang, CHENG Xiao, ZHANG Yuanyuan, HUI Fengming, ZHAO Tiancheng, QIN Weijia, LIANG Jianhong, Yang Yuande, LIU Xuying, LI Xinqing
 doi: 10.13203/j.whugis20200098
[Abstract](131) [PDF 1818KB](20)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Antarctic Expedition; Climate Change; Photogrammetry; Glaciology; Ecology; Geomorphology
Thinking and Challenges of Crowdynamics Observation from the Perspectives of Public Health and Public Security
Fang Zhixiang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.13203/j.whugis20200422
[Abstract](79) [PDF 1181KB](16)

Public health and public security events present the importance of crow dynamics observation. The crow dynamics observation should be a key component of human-orient observation, and the necessary elements of global observation system framework consisting observations of space, sky, land, ocean and people. This paper firstly introduces a concept of crow dynamics observation, defines its scientific connotations and boundaries, and highlights the role and significance of this theory. Then, from the perspective of public health and safety emergency, this paper analyzes the characteristics of accuracy, scientificity and on-demand in crow dynamics observation requirements, and introduces the state of art of crow dynamics observation includingdata perception of crow dynamics, sampling and expansion of population scale, and quantitative modeling of crow dynamics, crow dynamics research field, etc.Next, this paper thinks about the observation tasks of crowd dynamics from four important aspects, such as, rigorous distinction between individuals and groups, abnormal observations centered on spatiotemporal processes, breakthroughs in observational thinking under missing data, and scientific predictions of crowd dynamics under specific scenarios, etc. Finally, this paper summarizes three important research challengescombined with public health and safety emergency tasks, namely, the challenge of improving observation capabilities, the challenge of fusion observation of human and earth observation, and the research ethical challenge of human observation. In short, the concepts, thinking dimensions and challenges proposed in this article provide basic theories and methods for major public health and safety emergencies, clarifying the laws of urban multi-type spatial development, mastering the differentiation mechanism of spatial evolution, and controlling urban spatial development paths. All of them shows asignificanceof the frontier exploration.

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ISSN 1671-8860

CN 42-1676/TN




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DU Zhiqiang

Knowledge Graph Construction Method on Natural Disaster Emergency

Natural disasters occur frequently and pose a huge threat to China. Disaster prevention, mitigation, and disaster relief are eternal topics of human survival and development. However, in the field of disaster relief and emergency response, the relevant data increase sharply while the critical knowledge of emergency is obviously lacking. The "data-information-knowledge" transformation capacity is insufficient to meet the urgent needs of disaster prevention and reduction. Firstly taking natural disasters as the core, and around four elements of natural disaster events, disaster emergency tasks, disaster data, and methods, this paper proposes a knowledge graph construction method by combining a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach. Then, concept layer of knowledge graph is built from top to down, and the conceptual framework is formed through ontology modeling. Data layer of knowledge graph is built from bottom to top, and the relationship between entities is established through data acquisition, knowledge extraction, fusion, and storage. Finally, a flood disaster emergency knowledge graph is built to verify the validity of the proposed method. The concept layer in flood disaster emergency knowledge graph defines the conceptual levels, the attributes and the semantic relationships of flood disaster events, disaster emergency tasks, disaster data, and methods. The data layer in flood disaster emergency knowledge graph realizes the extraction of entities and relationships from multi-source data. After the knowledge fusion process, 3 054 nodes and 12 689 relationship edges are obtained and stored in the Neo4j graph database. The flood disaster emergency knowledge graph realizes the transformation from multi-source data to interrelated knowledge.

LÜ Guonian

Role of Geometric Algebra in High Dimensional Space Representation of Geographic Information

Geographic information space is a high-dimensional space combining virtual and real. Geographic information system (GIS) based on European geometry plays an important role in the development of geographic information science. However, because the expression of GIS geographic objects and phenomena in European-style space depends on object coordinates and the adopted coordinate system, it is difficult for the expression, calculation and analysis of geographic objects to form a multi-dimensional unified operation rule and framework, which increases the algorithm's complexity and reduces the efficiency of algorithm analysis. Geometric algebra is a kind of combination algebra based on dimensional operation. Space can be defined as the operation between vector sets. The dimension of space is directly determined by the algorithm, which realizes the unification of high-dimensional geometric calculation and analysis. Based on the unified calculation and analysis framework of geometric algebra, GIS can better express and analyze high-dimensional objects, and then improve the ability of expressing complex geographical objects and dynamic geographical phenomena, analyzing spatiotemporal multi-scale objects and integration of different scale geographical models. This lays the theoretical foundation for the development of GIS towards holographic maps with real-time dynamics, virtual-real fusion, full perspective, full elements and full content expression.

LU Pengjie

Auto-detection and Hiding of Sensitive Targets in Emergency Mapping Based on Remote Sensing Data

  Objectives  Emergency remote sensing mapping can provide support for decision-making in disaster assessment or disaster relief, and therefore plays an important role in disaster response.Traditional emergency remote sensing mapping methods use the decryption algorithms based on manual retrieval and image editing tools when processing sensitive targets. Although the traditional methods can achieve target recognition, they are inefficient and cannot meet the immediate requirements of disaster relief, which are unable to be released or applied in time. The main objective is to propose a method for auto-detecting and hiding of sensitive targets in emergency remote sensing mapping to accelerate the rapid production and release emergency remote sensing products.  Methods   Because of the huge size of remote sensing images, it is not realistic to directly hide sensitive targets. We propose a two-stage processing method automatic target detection and hiding of sensitive targets method, which consists of two neural network models: target detection model and generative adversarial network model. Firstly, Mask R-CNN, a well-known and effective target detection method, was used to detect sensitive targets from massive remote sensing data and generate target coordinates and Masks. Then, Deepfill model, one of GAN(generative adversarial networks) models, can ignore other normal areas and directly hide sensitive objects in the local area based on the coordinates and Masks information. The aircraft objects in the remote sensing image was used as an application example to verify the feasibility of our method, furthermore, we added the reconstruction of loss function, candidate frame optimization of region recommendation network, Mask optimization algorithm, and attention mechanism reconstruction based on the characteristics of the aircraft objects. Mask R-CNN model and Deepfill model have different training principles, so we trained and tuned them separately, and finally combine the trained models. We randomly extracted images from RSOD(remote sensing object detection) and DOTA(a large-scale dataset for object detection in aerial images) to form a new dataset. A total of 1 607 images were obtained for Mask R-CNN model training, and 9 502 images were used for Deepfill model training. All these samples are divided into training set and verification set according to the ratio of 0.8: 0.2. The performance of the Mask R-CNN model was evaluated by precision, recall rate, missing detect rate and F1-score; the performance evaluation indicators of the Deepfill model are PSNR(peak signal to noise ratio) and SSIM(structural similarity).  Results   46 images were extracted separately from the original dataset to test the performance of the trained models. In the target detect stage, the accuracy of the benchmark model was 98.13%, the recall rate was 44.21%, the missed detection rate was 55.79%, and the F1-score was 60.96%. Many targets were not detected. For comparison, the accuracy of our method reaches 94.65%, the recall rate reaches 81.89%, which is 85.23% higher than the benchmark model; the missed detection rate reaches 18.11%, which is 67.54% lower than the benchmark model; the F1-score reaches 87.81%, which is 44.05% higher than the benchmark model. In the inpainting stage, the average PSNR in this method reaches 32.26, and the average SSIM value is 0.98.  Conclusions   In the proposed method, the recall rate and F1-score of aircraft targets in remote sensing images have been significantly improved, the inpainting processing effect is reasonable and natural, and the overall time of the emergency remote sensing mapping process is saved, indicating that the two-stage model works well. In the future, it can further expand the detection and processing of other sensitive targets, accelerate the production and release efficiency of disaster emergency response map products, and thus improve the ability of disaster prevention and relief.


Key Technologies of Seamless Location in Emergency Rescue

  Objectives  Emergency location is one of the key technologies for emergency rescue of major emergencies such as earthquake, fire, mine accident and so on. However, at the present stage, the research on the theory and technology of emergency location is still not systematized, the rapid construction method of seamless benchmark and collaborative location model for emergency location are not robust enough, and the lack of positioning terminals has become an urgent problem to be solved.  Methods   Firstly, we expound the research status at home and abroad according to the three commonly used emergency positioning modes of GNSS(global navigation satellite system), autonomous positioning and local area network electromagnetic wave positioning.Secondly, based on the technologies of emergency CORS(continuously operating reference stations) and UWB(ultra wide band) networking, a general emergency seamless positioning solution for many kinds of disasters is constructed. Then, the key technologies such as low power consumption of emergency positioning terminal manufacturing, synchronous information acquisition and efficient calculation of embedded firmware are overcome, and hardware equipment such as GNSS/UWB base station is developed. And, the emergency location service system is designed and developed, which solves the problems of emergency position networking, personnel location and on-site scheduling. Finally, the message transmission protocol of emergency navigation and location service system is proposed, which promotes the development of emergency rescue equipment standardization.  Results   Through the research on the key technologies such as the manufacture of emergency location terminals such as GNSS/UWB base station, the development of emergency location and location service system based on cloud platform, and the formulation of message transmission protocol of emergency navigation and location service system, we put forward a seamless positioning solution for indoor and outdoor under emergency conditions, which solves the problems of rapid construction of indoor and outdoor seamless positioning datum, personnel positioning and command scheduling in emergency.  Conclusions   The purpose is to create an emergency-oriented indoor seamless positioning technology system and innovate the existing emergency positioning technology methods.

DU Qingyun

Adaptive Cartographic Techniques for Disaster Emergency Services

  Objectives  In disaster emergency services, the spatial-temporal distribution maps of geographic entities, thematic information statistical mapping, etc. have become important auxiliary decision-making methods. In the face of unpredictable, complex and changing situations of disaster prevention and reduction, disaster emergency mapping services require rapid response, real-time updates to comprehensively and dynamically reflect the information of all aspects of emergency and disaster reduction work.   Methods   In order to fully meet the content and efficiency requirements of emergency disaster reduction work, we proposed an adaptive mapping method for disaster emergency services. First, based on the comprehensive analysis of the mapping requirements, map content and operation experience of the disaster emergency scene, we proposed a user-oriented adaptive mapping strategies, and described its specific mapping content in detail, including regional scale, mapping template, dynamic symbol and real-time data. Then, according to the characteristics of the disaster scene and adaptive mapping, the overall technical process was designed. The key technologies such as cartographic knowledge expression, construction of mapping templates, production engine of symbols, situational symbol plotting, order-based mapping mode and personal mapping space were also analyzed in depth to form a complete adaptive mapping solution for disaster emergency.   Results   We used six types of disasters such as earthquake, fire, flood, building collapse, geological disaster and traffic accident as application examples.   Conclusions   By analyzing previous excellent disaster maps and summering the mapping variables and the relationship between the variables, we used the proposed adaptive mapping technologies to extract 300 kinds of disaster mapping knowledge rules, 200 sets of disaster mapping templates and 100 kinds of dynamic mapping symbols, and build a disaster emergency adaptive rapid mapping platform to provide technical reference for disaster emergency services from the theoretical and practical levels.

WANG Taoyang

Space Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring for Urban Complex

Urban complex is the basic unit of urban politics, economy and social life, and space remote sensing dynamic monitoring for urban complex is an efficient and accurate technical method. A space remote sensing dynamic monitoring system for urban complex is proposed and constructed from the aspects of application demand, technical method, remote sensing products, management release, etc. Using the system, the construction progress and surrounding water environment monitoring of the urban complex of Huoshenshan Hospital and Leishenshan Hospital are carried out. The construction progress of Huoshenshan Hospital and Leishenshan Hospital is monitored by high-resolution optical satellites such as Gaofen-2, Jilin-1 and Pleiades, which is identical with the construction progress in the news report and the officially published hospital area. The construction intensity of Huoshenshan Hospital is monitored by the high-resolution night light satellite Jilin-1, most areas of the construction plant are under high-intensity construction at night. The water environment around Huoshenshan Hospital and Leishenshan Hospital is monitored by the hyperspectral satellite Zhuhai-1, the construction process has no significant impact on the surrounding water environment. The surface stability of Huoshenshan Hospital and Leishenshan Hospital before construction is analyzed by the high-resolution radar satellite Sentinel-1A, there is no obvious surface subsidence in the construction area of Huoshenshan Hospital, and there are different degrees of surface subsidence signals in the surrounding areas of Leishenshan Hospital. In the critical period of fighting against the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), it has met the public's attention needs and plays a certain role in stabilizing social mood. A retrospective monitoring of the collapse of Xinjia hotel in Quanzhou is carried out to provide data reference for accident liability analysis. The deformation of Xinjia hotel is mainly caused by the south wall, and the foundation settlement is not obvious. This result is consistent with the fact that the hotel collapses to the south, and the main reason for the collapse is the instability of the internal structure of the building, rather than the uneven ground settlement. The effectiveness of the system is verified.

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