1985 Vol. 10, No. 2
In this paper the general principles for the design of above-and underground tunnel control net heve been discussed.By means of S-transformation and Calculation of simulated dates these Principles are verified and checked.The stastics test method is applied to the tunnel surveying by using the theory of two epoches deformationsanalysis.The method of measurement and adjustment in designs and driving stages of a tunnel is also dealt with.
Es gibt bisher schon mehr als zwanzigerlei Formeln zur Korrektion der Nivellitischen Refraktion.In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die typischen Formeln nach der Grundtheorie der Refraktion and anhand der vorhandenen Ergebnisse der atmosphärischen Physik über den atmosphärischen Wärmegleich in der Schicht der Bodennahe analysiert and miteinander verglichen.Dadurch können wir für das Einrichten des Höhennetzes in unserem Land einige Vorschläge unter der Berücksichtigung des Refraktionseinfluses geben.
In this paper,on the basis of simple study of the existing methods for 2-dimensional ordered samples,the problems of geographic regionalization are generally analysed and concluded into 3 groups,further more,a new definition of clustering analysis for the 2-dimensional ordered samples and its corresponding algorithms which are generally applicable are carried out.Finally,an example is offered to illustrate the use of the given method in the compilation of maps of regional division.
In the adjustment of indirect observations for a horizontal reiteration network,besides coordinate unknows,the speed and the acceleration unknowns are assured,so as to adjust the measured values in different times or in the same time but at different moments,then the above unknowns can be solved.When some control points have obvious displacements in positions,this method may indicate them objectively.This paper also includes:derivations of a few equations,the example in computer calculation,the assumed test,and the constrast and analysis between this method and the traditional one.
A preliminary investigation on the theory of array algebra is presented in this paper from a mathematical point of view.The array space is introduced,the definitions of the isomorphic mapping from array space onto vector space(i.e.stacking transformation) and its isomorphic inverse transformation(i.e.stacking inverse transformation) are given,and the properties of the transformation are discussed.
In this paper,the two special points of a geodesic is described:The critical point and the equator crossing are defined by some special terms respectively.The positions of the critical point and the equator crossing of a geodesic are determined with the nested coefficient method.Finally the accuracies of the positions are shown by some prectical examples computed.
This paper deals with four methods which are used for the analyzing of the stability of the points in a plane monitoring net preliminarily,in order to provide an alternative selection of proper adjustment methods to be dependent on.
This paper presents a way which recognizes the Chinese characters in handwriting on basis of statistical decision making and sentence structure.The method of recognition can work because a Chinese character can be represented by a grammar tree.Each pattern of Chinese character can be described by generating a grammar tree through separating the roots of the character and the recognition of them.The procedure of the recognition is as follows:firstly,"gaps of structure" of a Chinese character are searched to separate the roots of the character,and then,the roots separated are clustered fuzzily,compared and recognized according to the theory of fuzzy mathematics,finally,the grammar tree is traveled symmetrically,the Chinese character is assembled,the Chinese dictionary in the computer is looked upon and the result of recognition is output.This method of recognition has been proved through the analogous experimentation on micro-computer Apple Ⅱ.
In this paper we find a solution of adjustment with rank-defects of a free network by means of the method of orthogonal similar transformation.This method coordinates and combines the charaeteristic of "the method of generalized inverses","the method of pseudobsevation" and "the method of auxiliary condition".Thus in demonstrating some basic theoretical problems of the adjustment,the results can be obtained simply and directely by use of the method.
On the basis of the weight inverses P-1,this paper introduces the t-dimeusianal zero point,discusses the adjusted unique value and their necessary and sufficient conditions of the irregular weight metrix P:trP->trP+=min.It will also deal with the generalized weight matrix inverses P-,P+,the identity between them and penrose generalized matrix inverses,their constant solution and unique solution,arbitrary solution and conditional solution.This method has been checked with practical example.