Spatiotemporal data mining is the core research topic of geographic information science. In the era of big data, the explosive growth of geographic spatiotemporal data puts forward an urgent demand for spatiotemporal knowledge discovery, which promotes the continuous development of spatiotemporal data mining technology. However, the universal heterogeneity and sparse distribution characteristics of spatiotemporal big data restrict the realization of spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, and significantly affect the description and analysis capabilities of natural and social complex systems. Thus, this paper focuses on the series of bottlenecks faced in the expression and application of heterogeneous and sparsely distributed spatiotemporal data. We systematically summarized the research status and existing problems of several key spatiotemporal mining tasks including missing spatiotemporal data interpolation, sparse spatiotemporal data reconstruction, and spatiotemporal state prediction, condensed four key scientific problems, and gave four corresponding solutions. The proposed methods are expected to enrich the method system in the field of spatiotemporal data mining and improve the quality and application value of spatiotemporal data modeling.