Objectives With the improvement of the standardization and informatization of the emergency response process, the emergency management departments have higher requirements for the initiative and adaptability of the emergency mapping geographic information support services. As an important part of emergency mapping geographic information service, emergency mapping is also faced with the urgent need to improve the mapping speed and cover the whole process of emergency response. Taking geological disaster as an example, we explore the structure of emergency mapping model using the whole process geographic scene modeling technology, user interest modeling method based on hierarchical representation and "scenario mapping" technology.
Methods First of all, using the whole process of geographic scene modeling technology, we propose seven geographic scene models and 33 examples related to mapping in the whole process of geological disasters from the birth to occurrence, development to extinction, by selecting four dimensions of "information""scope""temporal" and "carrier". According to the characteristics of map use, the users of geological disaster emergency mapping are divided into four categories: Decision maker, executor, disaster acceptor and bystander. Then the emergency mapping requirements of these four categories of users are analyzed by using the hierarchical representation method, and the corresponding relationship between these four categories of users and 33 examples of geographical scene model is established. Finally, according to the generation of thematic information of cartography, three types of cartography models, data cartography, model cartography and expert cartography, are designed by using "scenario cartography" technology.
Results According to the design results of the mapping model, the geological disaster emergency mapping system is developed. In the data mapping process, the disaster element distribution map is selected as an example. After the thematic information is accessed in the system, the disaster element distribution map can be obtained through the mapping engine. In the process of model mapping, the early warning and prediction map is selected as an example. After the real-time data of early warning and prediction is accessed in the system, the thematic information of mapping can be obtained through model calculation and then the early warning and prediction map can be obtained through the mapping engine. In the process of expert mapping, the disaster situation sketch system is selected as an example. After the initial mapping thematic information is accessed in the system, the preliminary disaster map is made by the mapping engine, and then the final disaster situation sketch is obtained by overlaying the on-site expert knowledge.
Conclusions Compared with the traditional passive mapping mode, we construct the geological scene model and user demand model for the whole process of geological disaster's preparation, occurrence, development and extinction, and put forward the emergency mapping model for different visual variables, thus realizing a set of multi scene geological disaster thematic mapping solutions to meet the application needs.