龚丽芳, 李爱勤, 陈张建, 胡冯伟, 杜清运, 侯宛玥. 地质灾害应急制图模型研究[J]. 武汉大学学报 ( 信息科学版), 2020, 45(8): 1273-1281. doi: 10.13203/j.whugis20200140
引用本文: 龚丽芳, 李爱勤, 陈张建, 胡冯伟, 杜清运, 侯宛玥. 地质灾害应急制图模型研究[J]. 武汉大学学报 ( 信息科学版), 2020, 45(8): 1273-1281. doi: 10.13203/j.whugis20200140
GONG Lifang, LI Aiqin, CHEN Zhangjian, HU Fengwei, DU Qingyun, HOU Wanyue. Emergency Mapping Model for Geological Disaster[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2020, 45(8): 1273-1281. doi: 10.13203/j.whugis20200140
Citation: GONG Lifang, LI Aiqin, CHEN Zhangjian, HU Fengwei, DU Qingyun, HOU Wanyue. Emergency Mapping Model for Geological Disaster[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2020, 45(8): 1273-1281. doi: 10.13203/j.whugis20200140

地质灾害应急制图模型研究

Emergency Mapping Model for Geological Disaster

  • 摘要: 随着突发事件应急处置过程的标准化、信息化程度不断提高,应急管理部门对应急测绘地理信息保障服务的主动性和适应性要求也越来越高。应急制图作为应急测绘地理信息保障服务的重要内容,也面临着提升制图速度、覆盖应急处置全过程的迫切需求。以地质灾害为例,梳理了地质灾害孕育、产生、发展到消亡全过程的地理场景模型;提出了决策者、执行者、承灾者、旁观者等4个用户类别并逐一解析了不同地理场景模型中应急制图的用户需求模型;设计了数据制图模式、模型制图模式以及专家制图模式等一套满足多场景的地质灾害专题制图方案,并以中国浙江省地质灾害中的测绘地理信息保障服务工作为例进行了验证。

     

    Abstract:
      Objectives  With the improvement of the standardization and informatization of the emergency response process, the emergency management departments have higher requirements for the initiative and adaptability of the emergency mapping geographic information support services. As an important part of emergency mapping geographic information service, emergency mapping is also faced with the urgent need to improve the mapping speed and cover the whole process of emergency response. Taking geological disaster as an example, we explore the structure of emergency mapping model using the whole process geographic scene modeling technology, user interest modeling method based on hierarchical representation and "scenario mapping" technology.
      Methods   First of all, using the whole process of geographic scene modeling technology, we propose seven geographic scene models and 33 examples related to mapping in the whole process of geological disasters from the birth to occurrence, development to extinction, by selecting four dimensions of "information""scope""temporal" and "carrier". According to the characteristics of map use, the users of geological disaster emergency mapping are divided into four categories: Decision maker, executor, disaster acceptor and bystander. Then the emergency mapping requirements of these four categories of users are analyzed by using the hierarchical representation method, and the corresponding relationship between these four categories of users and 33 examples of geographical scene model is established. Finally, according to the generation of thematic information of cartography, three types of cartography models, data cartography, model cartography and expert cartography, are designed by using "scenario cartography" technology.
      Results   According to the design results of the mapping model, the geological disaster emergency mapping system is developed. In the data mapping process, the disaster element distribution map is selected as an example. After the thematic information is accessed in the system, the disaster element distribution map can be obtained through the mapping engine. In the process of model mapping, the early warning and prediction map is selected as an example. After the real-time data of early warning and prediction is accessed in the system, the thematic information of mapping can be obtained through model calculation and then the early warning and prediction map can be obtained through the mapping engine. In the process of expert mapping, the disaster situation sketch system is selected as an example. After the initial mapping thematic information is accessed in the system, the preliminary disaster map is made by the mapping engine, and then the final disaster situation sketch is obtained by overlaying the on-site expert knowledge.
      Conclusions   Compared with the traditional passive mapping mode, we construct the geological scene model and user demand model for the whole process of geological disaster's preparation, occurrence, development and extinction, and put forward the emergency mapping model for different visual variables, thus realizing a set of multi scene geological disaster thematic mapping solutions to meet the application needs.

     

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