引用本文: 李宗春, 郭迎钢, 汤进九, 何华, 司奎, 冯其强, 邓磊, 张冠宇, 王志远. 用三联全站仪法建立高精度三维导线[J]. 武汉大学学报 ( 信息科学版), 2021, 46(4): 546-554.
LI Zongchun, GUO Yinggang, TANG Jinjiu, HE Hua, SI Kui, FENG Qiqiang, DENG Lei, ZHANG Guanyu, WANG Zhiyuan. High Precision 3D Traverse Established by Trigeminy Total Station Method[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2021, 46(4): 546-554.
 Citation: LI Zongchun, GUO Yinggang, TANG Jinjiu, HE Hua, SI Kui, FENG Qiqiang, DENG Lei, ZHANG Guanyu, WANG Zhiyuan. High Precision 3D Traverse Established by Trigeminy Total Station Method[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2021, 46(4): 546-554.

## High Precision 3D Traverse Established by Trigeminy Total Station Method

• 摘要: 为了满足地下工程中精密坐标传递的需求，设计了一种高精度三维导线测量及数据处理方法。受三联脚架法的启发，提出了利用三联全站仪法构建精密三维导线的思路。利用U型卡扣将球棱镜靶座固联到全站仪提手上，标定出球棱镜中心与仪器中心的空间关系，据此改化观测值; 以仪器中心之间的连线构成三维导线，避免了人工测量仪器高和棱镜高带来的误差。设计了一种实用的铅垂线不平行性改正模型，利用Helmert方差分量估计合理确定了多类观测值的权，使三维导线平差过程更为严密。以某隧道工程测量为实例，利用三联全站仪法建立了由15条导线边构成的三维闭合导线。与传统三维导线平差结果相比，经铅垂线不平行性改正和方差分量估计后，单位权中误差明显减小，导线点坐标精度明显提高，精度优于±0.5 mm; 用数字工业摄影测量系统进行验证，点位外符合精度达± 0.32 mm。通过采取各项有效技术措施，所提方法经受了短边、大垂直角等严峻条件的考验，有推广应用价值。

Abstract:
Objectives  To meet the precise coordinate transmission requirement of underground engineering, a measuring and data processing method of high-precision 3D traverse is inspired by the trigeminy tripod method.
Methods  The trigeminy total station method is proposed to build 3D traverse. The U buckle is used to fix the adapter of tooling ball reflector on the handle of a total station. The spatial relation between the tooling ball reflector center and instrument center is calibrated to correct the observed values. The lines connecting each two instrument centers constitute a 3D traverse, which avoids the manual measuring error of instrument height and prism height. A practical model for unparalleled plumb lines correction and Helmert variance component estimation are applied to determine the weight of different class observation. These improvements make the data processing of 3D traverse more rigorous.
Results  In a tunnel surveying project, a closed 3D traverse is established with 15 sides. Compared to traditional adjustment method, the variance of unit weight of the proposed method is obviously decreased after correction for unparalleled plumb lines and variance component estimation. The precision of traverse points is obviously improved and better than ±0.5 mm. Digital industrial photogrammetry system is utilized to check the adjustment results. The precision of common points transformation between the survey results of digital industrial photogrammetry system and that of 3D traverse is ±0.32 mm.
Conclusions  The proposed method has a good performance in severe conditions such as short sides and large vertical angles, so it is worthy of popularization and application.

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