[1] Molenaar M. An Introduction to the Theory of Spatial Object Modeling for GIS [M]. Boca Raton, USA: Chemical Rubber Company Press, 1998
[2] 吴华意, 刘波, 李大军, 等.空间对象拓扑关系研究综述[J].武汉大学学报·信息科学版, 2014, 39(11):1269-1276 http://ch.whu.edu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract3108.shtml

Wu Huayi, Liu Bo, Li Dajun, et al. Topological Relations of Spatial Objects: A Review[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2014, 39(11):1269-1276 http://ch.whu.edu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract3108.shtml
[3] Cohn A G, Gotts N M. The "Egg-Yolk" Representation of Regions with Indeterminate Boundaries [M]//Burrough P A, Frank A U(eds). Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries. London, UK: Taylor & Francisco, 1996
[4] 杜晓初. 多重表达中空间拓扑关系等价性研究[D]. 武汉大学, 2005

Du Xiaochu. Research on Equivalency of Spatial Topological Relations in Multiple Representation[D]. Wuhan :Wuhan University, 2005
[5] 高振记, 邬伦, 杨俭.基于RCC及粗糙模型的模糊地理对象拓扑关系表达[J].北京大学学报(自然科学版), 2008, 44(4):597-603 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-BDXP200704008.htm

Gao Zhenji, Wu Lun, Yang Jian. Representation of Topological Relations Between Vague Objects Based on Rough and RCC Model[J]. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 2008, 44(4): 597-603 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-BDXP200704008.htm
[6] 金标, 胡文龙.一种定量化表达的空间关系模型[J].武汉大学学报·信息科学版, 2013, 38(7):879-882 http://ch.whu.edu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract2708.shtml

Jin Biao, Hu Wenlong. A Quantified Model for Spatial Relationships[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2013, 38(7):879-882 http://ch.whu.edu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract2708.shtml
[7] 史文中.空间数据与空间分析不确定性原理[M].北京:科学出版社, 2005:245-270

Shi Wenzhong. The Uncertainty Principle of Spatial Data and Spatial Analysis[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2005:245-270
[8] 郭继发, 刘玉洁, 毛健, 等.高阶模糊区域的交叉拓扑关系形式化研究[J].武汉大学学报·信息科学版, 2014, 39(2):196-200 http://ch.whu.edu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract2936.shtml

Guo Jifa, Liu Yujie, Mao Jian, et al. Formalization Research of Topological Relation Between High Order Fuzzy Regions[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2014, 39(2):196-200 http://ch.whu.edu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract2936.shtml
[9] 邬伦, 高振记, 史文中, 等.地理信息系统中的不确定性问题[M].北京:电子工业出版社, 2010:170-190

Wu Lun, Gao Zhenji, Shi Wenzhong, et al. The Uncertainty Problem in Geographic Information System [M]. Beijing: Electronics Industry Press, 2010:170-190
[10] 何建华, 刘耀林, 俞艳, 等.基于模糊贴近度分析的不确定拓扑关系表达模型[J].测绘学报, 2008, 37(2):212-216 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200802016.htm

He Jianhua, Liu Yaolin, Yu Yan, et al.The Topological Relation Model for Indeterminate Geographical Objects Based on Fuzzy Close-degree[J]. Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica, 2008, 37(2):212-216 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200802016.htm
[11] Egenhofer M, Clementini E, Di Felice P. Evaluating Inconsistencies Among Multiple Representations [C]. 6th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1994
[12] 杜晓初, 熊建国.多尺度表达中空间拓扑关系等价性评价模型[J].测绘科学, 2007, 32(5):70-72 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHKD200705024.htm

Du Xiaochu, Xiong Jianguo. Evaluation Model on Equivalency of Spatial Topological Relations in Multiple Representation[J].Science of Surveying and Mapping, 2007, 32(5):70-72 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHKD200705024.htm
[13] 吕秀琴, 吴凡.多尺度空间对象拓扑相似关系的表达与计算[J].测绘信息与工程, 2006, 31(2):29-31 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXG200602011.htm

Lv Xiuqin, Wu Fan. Representation of Topological Similarity Relationships for Spatial Objects in Multi-scale Representation[J].Journal of Geomatics, 2006, 31(2):29-31 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXG200602011.htm
[14] 邓敏, 李志林, 程涛.多粒度的GIS数据不确定性粗集表达[J].测绘学报, 2006, 35(1):64-70 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200601012.htm

Deng Min, Li Zhilin, Cheng Tao. Routh-Set Representation of GIS Data Uncertainties with Multiple Granularities[J]. Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica, 2006, 35(1):64-70 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200601012.htm
[15] 杜世宏, 王桥, 魏斌, 等.空间方向关系粗糙推理[J].测绘学报, 2003, 32(4):334-338 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200304010.htm

Du Shihong, Wang Qiao, Wei Bin, et al. Spatial Orientational Relations Rough Reasoning[J]. Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica, 2003, 32(4):334-338 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200304010.htm
[16] 徐丰, 牛继强, 李卓凡. 基于粗集的多粒度空间方向关系不确定性定量评价模型[J]. 武汉大学学报·信息科学版, 2015, 40(7): 971-976

Xu Feng, Niu Jiqiang. Quantitative Evaluation Model of the Uncertainty of Multi-granularity Space Direction Relations Based on Rough-Set [J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2015, 40(7): 971-976
[17] 邓敏, 刘文宝, 冯学智. GIS面目标间拓扑关系的形式化模型[J].测绘学报, 2005, 34(1):85-90 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200501015.htm

Deng Min, Liu Wenbao, Feng Xuezhi. A Generic Model Describing Topological Relations Among Area Objects in GIS[J]. Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica, 2005, 34(1):85-90 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200501015.htm
[18] 邓敏, 徐锐, 李志林, 等.空间查询中自然语言空间关系与度量空间关系的转换方法研究:以面目标为例[J].测绘学报, 2009, 38(6):527-531 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200906012.htm

Deng Min, Xu Rui, Li Zhilin. A Spatial-Query-Driven Transformation Metric Spatial Relations and Natural Language Spatial Relations: Taking Regions as Example [J].Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica, 2009, 38(6): 527-531 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB200906012.htm
[19] 刘文宝, 戴洪磊, 徐泮林, 等.平面线位误差带几何形状的解析表达[J].测绘学报, 1998, 27(3):231-237 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB803.006.htm

Liu Wenbao, Dai Honglei, Xu Panlin. The Analytic Exprssion of Geometric Figure on Planar Lines Error Band[J]. Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica, 1998, 27(3):231-237 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CHXB803.006.htm
[20] 张国芹, 朱长青, 李国重.基于ε_m模型的线元位置不确定性度量指标[J].武汉大学学报·信息科学版, 2009, 34(4):431-435 http://ch.whu.edu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract1243.shtml

Zhang Guoqin, Zhu Changqing, Li Guozhong. Measurement Indexes of Positional Uncertainty for Plane Line Segment Based on ε_m Model[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, 2009, 34(4): 431-435 http://ch.whu.edu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract1243.shtml
[21] Mozas A T, Ariza F J. New Method for Positional Quality Control in Cartography Based on Lines: A Comparative Study of Methodologies [J]. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 2011, 25 (10/12) : 1681-1695 http://www.researchgate.net/publication/220650355_New_method_for_positional_quality_control_in_cartography_based_on_lines._A_comparative_study_of_methodologies
[22] Chui K C, Shi Wenzhong. Estimation of the Positional Uncertainty in Line Simplification in GIS [J]. The Cartographic Journal, 2004, 41(1): 37-45 doi:  10.1179/000870404225019990
[23] 徐丰, 牛继强.空间数据多尺度表达的不确定性分析模型[M].武汉:武汉大学出版社, 2014:146-185

Xu Feng, Niu Jiqiang. Uncertainty Analysis Models for Multi-scale Representation of Spatial Data[M]. Wuhan: Wuhan University Press, 2014:146-185
[24] Egenhofer M, Franzosa R D. Point-Set Topological Spatial Relations [J]. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 1991, 5(2):161-174 doi:  10.1080/02693799108927841
[25] Egenhofer M. A Model for Detailed Binary Topological Relationships [J]. Geomatic, 1993, 47(3): 261-273
[26] Clarke B L. A Calculus of Individuals Based on Connection [J]. Norte Dame Journal of Formal Logie, 1981, 2(3): 287-296 http://www.researchgate.net/publication/38355951_A_Calculus_of_Individuals_Based_on_Connection